Client TLS/SSL Connections


Please refer to the "Certificates" page for more details on how CloudNativePG supports TLS certificates.

The CloudNativePG operator has been designed to work with TLS/SSL for both encryption in transit and authentication, on server and client sides. Clusters created using the CNPG operator comes with a Certification Authority (CA) to create and sign TLS client certificates. Through the cnpg plugin for kubectl you can issue a new TLS client certificate which can be used to authenticate a user instead of using passwords.

Please refer to the following steps to authenticate via TLS/SSL certificates, which assume you have installed a cluster using the cluster-example-pg-hba.yaml manifest. According to the convention over configuration paradigm, that file automatically creates an app database which is owned by a user called app (you can change this convention through the initdb configuration in the bootstrap section).

Issuing a new certificate

About CNPG plugin for kubectl

Please refer to the "Certificates" section in the "CloudNativePG Plugin" page for details on how to use the plugin for kubectl.

You can create a certificate for the app user in the cluster-example PostgreSQL cluster as follows:

kubectl cnpg certificate cluster-app \
  --cnpg-cluster cluster-example \
  --cnpg-user app

You can now verify the certificate with:

kubectl get secret cluster-app \
  -o jsonpath="{.data['tls\.crt']}" \
  | base64 -d | openssl x509 -text -noout \
  | head -n 11


    Version: 3 (0x2)
    Serial Number:
    Signature Algorithm: ecdsa-with-SHA256
    Issuer: OU = default, CN = cluster-example
      Not Before: Mar 22 10:22:14 2021 GMT
      Not After : Mar 22 10:22:14 2022 GMT
    Subject: CN = app

As you can see, TLS client certificates by default are created with 90 days of validity, and with a simple CN that corresponds to the username in PostgreSQL. This is necessary to leverage the cert authentication method for hostssl entries in pg_hba.conf.

Testing the connection via a TLS certificate

Now we will test this client certificate by configuring a demo client application that connects to our CloudNativePG cluster.

The following manifest called cert-test.yaml creates a demo Pod with a test application in the same namespace where your database cluster is running:

apiVersion: apps/v1
kind: Deployment
  name: cert-test
  replicas: 1
      app: webtest
        app: webtest
        - image:
          name: cert-test
            - name: secret-volume-root-ca
              mountPath: /etc/secrets/ca
            - name: secret-volume-app
              mountPath: /etc/secrets/app
            - containerPort: 8080
            - name: DATABASE_URL
              value: >
            - name: SQL_QUERY
              value: SELECT 1
              port: 8080
              path: /tx
        - name: secret-volume-root-ca
            secretName: cluster-example-ca
            defaultMode: 0600
        - name: secret-volume-app
            secretName: cluster-app
            defaultMode: 0600

This Pod will mount secrets managed by the CloudNativePG operator, including:

  • sslcert: the TLS client public certificate
  • sslkey: the TLS client certificate private key
  • sslrootcert: the TLS Certification Authority certificate, that signed the certificate on the server to be used to verify the identity of the instances

They will be used to create the default resources that psql (and other libpq based applications like pgbench) requires to establish a TLS encrypted connection to the Postgres database.

By default psql searches for certificates inside the ~/.postgresql directory of the current user, but we can use the sslkey, sslcert, sslrootcert options to point libpq to the actual location of the cryptographic material. The content of the above files is gathered from the secrets that were previously created by using the cnpg plugin for kubectl.

Now deploy the application:

kubectl create -f cert-test.yaml

Then we will use created Pod as PostgreSQL client to validate SSL connection and authentication using TLS certificates we just created.

A readiness probe has been configured to ensure that the application is ready when the database server can be reached.

You can verify that the connection works by executing an interactive bash inside the Pod's container to run psql using the necessary options. The PostgreSQL server is exposed through the read-write Kubernetes service. We will point the psql command to connect to this service:

kubectl exec -it cert-test -- bash -c "psql
'sslkey=/etc/secrets/app/tls.key sslcert=/etc/secrets/app/tls.crt
sslrootcert=/etc/secrets/ca/ca.crt host=cluster-example-rw.default.svc dbname=app
user=app sslmode=verify-full' -c 'select version();'"

Output :

PostgreSQL 15.3 on x86_64-pc-linux-gnu, compiled by gcc (GCC) 8.3.1 20191121 (Red Hat
8.3.1-5), 64-bit
(1 row)