Labels and annotations

Resources in Kubernetes are organized in a flat structure, with no hierarchical information or relationship between them. However, such resources and objects can be linked together and put in relationship through labels and annotations.

Info

For more information, see the Kubernetes documentation on annotations and labels.

In brief:

  • An annotation is used to assign additional non-identifying information to resources with the goal of facilitating integration with external tools.
  • A label is used to group objects and query them through the Kubernetes native selector capability.

You can select one or more labels or annotations to use in your CloudNativePG deployments. Then you need to configure the operator so that when you define these labels or annotations in a cluster's metadata, they're inherited by all resources created by it (including pods).

Note

Label and annotation inheritance is the technique adopted by CloudNativePG instead of alternative approaches such as pod templates.

Predefined labels

These predefined labels are managed by CloudNativePG.

cnpg.io/backupName
Backup identifier, available only on Backup and VolumeSnapshot resources
cnpg.io/cluster
Name of the cluster
cnpg.io/immediateBackup
Applied to a Backup resource if the backup is the first one created from a ScheduledBackup object having immediate set to true
cnpg.io/instanceName
Name of the PostgreSQL instance (replaces the old and deprecated postgresql label)
cnpg.io/jobRole
Role of the job (that is, import, initdb, join, ...)
cnpg.io/podRole
Role of the pod: instance, or pooler
cnpg.io/poolerName
Name of the PgBouncer pooler
cnpg.io/pvcRole
Purpose of the PVC, such as PG_DATA or PG_WAL
cnpg.io/reload
Available on ConfigMap and Secret resources. When set to true, a change in the resource is automatically reloaded by the operator.
cnpg.io/scheduled-backup
When available, name of the ScheduledBackup resource that created a given Backup object
role
Whether the instance running in a pod is a primary or a replica
cnpg.io/backupTimeline
The timeline of the instance when a backup was taken
cnpg.io/backupYear
The year a backup was taken
cnpg.io/backupMonth
The year/month when a backup was taken
cnpg.io/backupDate
The date of the backup in ISO 8601 format (YYYYMMDD)
cnpg.io/onlineBackup
Whether the backup is online (hot) or taken when Postgres is down (cold)

Predefined annotations

These predefined annotations are managed by CloudNativePG.

container.apparmor.security.beta.kubernetes.io/*
Name of the AppArmor profile to apply to the named container. See AppArmor for details.
cnpg.io/coredumpFilter
Filter to control the coredump of Postgres processes, expressed with a bitmask. By default it's set to 0x31 to exclude shared memory segments from the dump. See PostgreSQL core dumps for more information.
cnpg.io/clusterManifest
Manifest of the Cluster owning this resource (such as a PVC). This label replaces the old, deprecated cnpg.io/hibernateClusterManifest label.
cnpg.io/fencedInstances
List of the instances that need to be fenced, expressed in JSON format. The whole cluster is fenced if the list contains the * element.
cnpg.io/forceLegacyBackup
Applied to a Cluster resource for testing purposes only, to simulate the behavior of barman-cloud-backup prior to version 3.4 (Jan 2023) when the --name option wasn't available.
cnpg.io/hash
The hash value of the resource.
cnpg.io/hibernation
Applied to a Cluster resource to control the declarative hibernation feature. Allowed values are on and off.
cnpg.io/managedSecrets
Pull secrets managed by the operator and automatically set in the ServiceAccount resources for each Postgres cluster.
cnpg.io/nodeSerial
On a pod resource, identifies the serial number of the instance within the Postgres cluster.
cnpg.io/operatorVersion
Version of the operator.
cnpg.io/pgControldata
Output of the pg_controldata command. This annotation replaces the old, deprecated cnpg.io/hibernatePgControlData annotation.
cnpg.io/podEnvHash
Deprecated, as the cnpg.io/podSpec annotation now also contains the pod environment.
cnpg.io/podSpec
Snapshot of the spec of the pod generated by the operator. This annotation replaces the old, deprecated cnpg.io/podEnvHash annotation.
cnpg.io/poolerSpecHash
Hash of the pooler resource.
cnpg.io/pvcStatus
Current status of the PVC: initializing, ready, or detached.
cnpg.io/reconciliationLoop
When set to disabled on a Cluster, the operator prevents the reconciliation loop from running.
cnpg.io/reloadedAt
Contains the latest cluster reload time. reload is triggered by the user through a plugin.
cnpg.io/skipEmptyWalArchiveCheck
When set to true on a Cluster resource, the operator disables the check that ensures that the WAL archive is empty before writing data. Use at your own risk.
cnpg.io/backupStartWAL
The WAL at the start of a backup.
cnpg.io/backupEndWAL
The WAL at the conclusion of a backup.
cnpg.io/backupStartTime
The time a backup started.
cnpg.io/backupEndTime
The time a backup ended.
cnpg.io/snapshotStartTime
The time a snapshot started.
cnpg.io/snapshotEndTime
The time a snapshot was marked as ready to use.
kubectl.kubernetes.io/restartedAt
When available, the time of last requested restart of a Postgres cluster.

Prerequisites

By default, no label or annotation defined in the cluster's metadata is inherited by the associated resources. To enable label/annotation inheritance, follow the instructions provided in Operator configuration.

The following continues from that example and limits it to the following:

  • Annotations: categories
  • Labels: app, environment, and workload

Note

Feel free to select the names that most suit your context for both annotations and labels. You can also use wildcards in naming and adopt strategies like using mycompany/* for all labels or setting annotations starting with mycompany/ to be inherited.

Defining cluster's metadata

When defining the cluster, before any resource is deployed, you can set the metadata as follows:

apiVersion: postgresql.cnpg.io/v1
kind: Cluster
metadata:
  name: cluster-example
  annotations:
    categories: database
  labels:
    environment: production
    workload: database
    app: sso
spec:
     # ... <snip>

Once the cluster is deployed, you can verify, for example, that the labels were correctly set in the pods:

kubectl get pods --show-labels

Current limitations

Currently, CloudNativePG doesn't automatically propagate labels or annotations deletions. Therefore, when an annotation or label is removed from a cluster that was previously propagated to the underlying pods, the operator doesn't remove it on the associated resources.